Gardeners consider the pear to be a whimsical tree, so it must be carefully prepared for winter, with the utmost care and patience. For such an attitude towards herself, she will definitely reward with a good harvest in the coming warm season. The preparation of this fruit tree for winter consists of several main stages.
Cleaning begins by collecting all the fruits remaining on the branches and under the tree. It is imperative to clear the area from volunteers, fallen leaves, mulch. All this material can become an excellent organic fertilizer after a special procedure and a certain period of time. If you leave all this in the area between the trees, then there is a danger of a large number of pests and various infectious diseases.
After cleaning the garden area, it is recommended to renew the mulch layer in the pear tree trunks. Any organic matter, except chopped straw, can be used for these purposes, as it can become an attractive habitat for field mice.
After thorough cleaning, you can proceed to pruning fruit trees. Autumn is a good time to remove all damaged and dead branches that will no longer bring any benefit to the culture and will not be able to bear fruit in the new season.
Scab is a fungal disease that affects leaves and fruits. You can protect the pear from it with the help of preventive autumn spraying with a urea solution (5%) or special chemicals. It is necessary to spray the entire crown of the tree and its trunk.
If painful growths have formed on the bark of the pear, then they need to be cleaned, washed with an antiseptic solution (for example, copper sulfate), and then the cleaned areas must be treated with garden varnish.
Top dressing with phosphorus and potassium content, introduced in the autumn, will help to increase the frost resistance of the pear and stimulate its wood to ripen. But it is not recommended to use nitrogen-containing fertilizers in autumn, since nitrogen promotes the appearance of new shoots, and they simply will not survive the winter period. For weakened trees, this top dressing will only do harm.
Timely application of fertilizer to the near-stem circles of fruit trees helps them start flowering a little faster and bring bountiful high-quality harvests.
For each fruit tree, in particular for the pear, a mixture of superphosphate and potassium sulfate fertilizers is recommended. One square meter of land will require one tablespoon of each drug. This dry mixture must be poured into prepared holes (about 20 cm deep), watered abundantly and covered with soil.
Abundant watering is especially necessary for trees before wintering, if the summer was dry and hot, and autumn - with minimal rainfall. Each adult pear should receive about one hundred buckets of water.
Harmful insects mainly harm trees in the spring and summer, but in winter mice and hares love to feast on the tender and tasty bark of pears. After their "meal" the trees get sick and may die. The most reliable protective material against rodents is spruce branches, plastic mesh with small cells, burlap or a specially prepared mixture for coating the trunks of fruit trees. The composition of the deterrent mixture: water and equal proportions of mullein and clay. A thick "whitewash" is applied to the trunks of pears and frightens off uninvited visitors with its unpleasant, pungent aroma.
How to properly prepare fruit trees for winter
Any gardener can grow a pear. All operations for caring for her are simple, but must be performed. This fully applies to the period after the harvest, on which the success of the plant overwintering depends.
Modern varieties of pears are ill infrequently less often than an apple tree, pests overcome a pear. Nevertheless, even with visible well-being, it cannot be argued that pathogenic organisms and harmful insects are absent in plant residues. Therefore, immediately after harvesting, it is necessary to carefully clean up the area.
If dried or rotten fruits remain on the tree, they must be removed and destroyed. All fallen leaves should be scooped up and burned. True, if there were no signs of tree diseases in the season, the leaves can be sent to compost, well covered with an earthen layer. At the same time, replace the mulch (if any), the old layer can not be removed, but together with it, dig up the soil.
Any dried or rotten fruits on the tree - the source of infection must be removed.
Thorough pruning of the pear tree is best postponed until spring, but light pruning should be done in the fall, immediately after harvesting and harvesting on the site. This applies to the cutting of broken, dried, diseased and the weakest branches.
Any wounds with a diameter of more than 1.2–2 cm must be covered with garden varnish, and branches with a thickness of more than 4–5 cm should not be sawed off before winter.
After sanitary pruning, carefully examine the trunk and bases of the skeletal branches. Any unnatural growths, lichens, bark peeling should be removed using wooden or plastic scrapers and hard brushes. If at the same time it was necessary to inflict serious injuries on the tree, the places left without bark are disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, and then covered with garden varnish.
Only not very thick branches can be cut in autumn.
After cleaning and pruning, it is advisable to treat the pear from the scab using a 5% urea solution. This event can be excluded only if even the slightest signs of the disease were not observed, and the current summer was not cold and wet. They spray not only the branches, but also the trunk, affecting the near-trunk circle.
Great harm to pear trees, especially young ones, is caused by hares and mouse-like rodents in winter. At the latest, the trunks to a height of up to 1 m can be coated with a clay talker (clay and mullein equally, water to a state convenient for "whitewashing"). Instead of applying such a composition, you can wrap the trunks with coniferous spruce branches or hard burlap, but so that the shelter slides to the ground.
Before wrapping, the trunk should still be whitened, and to a sufficient height, capturing the bases of the skeletal branches. Whitewashing the tree aims to protect it from sunburn in February-March. To prepare the whitewash composition, 400-500 g of copper sulfate, about 2 kg of lime and 200 g of casein glue are successively diluted in a bucket of water.
Fruit trees are whitewashed in late autumn, not in spring: whitewashing performs its function already at the end of winter
Autumn fertilization is carried out simultaneously with digging the soil around the tree, spending 1–2 tbsp per 1 m 2. tablespoons of superphosphate and potassium sulfate. If the tree is grown under turf, the calculated amount of fertilizer is poured into several holes up to 20 cm deep, dug in different places of the trunk circle, then half a bucket of water is poured into the holes. Nitrogen fertilizers are not used in the fall.
Manure for digging is also not worth it, but closer to winter it will be nice to scatter humus under a pear with a layer of 4–5 cm: it will perform the function of mulch, and by spring melt water will transfer nutrients to the upper layers of the soil.
It is especially important to mulch the trunk circle of a young tree, in which the roots are still only in the upper layers of the soil.
It is imperative to water pear trees before winter, especially if the autumn turned out to be without serious rains. This should be done later, shortly before the onset of frost. You may need a lot of water, more than a dozen buckets: after all, you need to wet a layer of earth at least a meter deep. Therefore, watered in several passes until the water is absorbed.
If the trunk is wrapped with coniferous spruce branches from rodents, more pear insulation for the winter is not required in most regions. But where frosts are more severe than -30 ° C, trees may freeze. The use of nonwovens partially solves the problem, but it is unrealistic to completely wrap a mature tree. In harsh climatic conditions, only the most frost-resistant varieties of pears survive.
In cold regions, even special boxes for winter are made for young trees.
Usually, only 1 or 2 pear trees are planted on a personal plot, so in the fall there is not much work to be done with them. Nevertheless, elementary actions are necessary so that the tree does not suffer from frost, and the next year again pleases with a good harvest.
Before preparing the pears for winter, they are examined, fruits, leaves and remnants of greenery on the crown and in the near-trunk area are removed. At the end of autumn, the tree should not have leaves, rotted and mummified fruits, and in the near-stem area - fallen leaves. Shoots of a columnar pear should be intact and mature without green tips, not too close to the ground. Pests and infections can hide in fruits and leaves for the winter. At the beginning of the growing season, they will attack the tree. That is why they should be removed at the end of autumn.
Cleaning is carried out as follows:
Almost all gardeners grow different fruit trees on their plots, because their fruits are beneficial, since they include different mineral components in their composition. At the same time, it is important to properly care for them. Pear is no exception. What should be the care of a pear in the fall and preparation for winter and pruning I will consider especially for the readers of "Popularly about health".
It is known that the pear tree grows up to fifteen meters, and the process of the so-called fruiting occurs in the seventh year of the plant's life. It is useful to eat juicy and tasty pears both raw, and you can prepare various delicious dishes from them, for example, compote, marmalade, jam, add to baked goods.
Like many fruit trees, the pear requires careful attention to itself, as well as regular maintenance. It is important to choose the type of tree that is suitable for the region, while the fruit crop has a better chance of taking root. If you ignore this condition, then the plant will give a minimum yield or, in general, may die.
It is important to correctly determine the place where the pear tree will grow. It should be light, the soil is desirable - loose, so that it can pass the air mass, as well as moisture. It is important to water this crop on time, and you can use a special sprayer. In addition, it is necessary to regularly loosen the soil and also remove the grass in the area of the lower part of the trunk. What is the preparation of pears for cold weather?
Autumn pear care
After the harvest, the so-called autumn pear tree processing is carried out. At this time, it is important to prevent the penetration of pathogens under the tree bark. Accordingly, it is recommended to carefully remove all weeds, remove fallen and rotten pears into the compost pit, and it is also important to remove branches and leaves.
Loosening the soil will help the tree supply oxygen. To do this, digging the soil is carried out. You can form a so-called trunk circle, the diameter of which is one meter. Adult trees are examined in the fall, the bark is processed, while its dead part is removed.
One of the important points is the whitewashing of the plant, since thanks to it it is possible to disinfect the trunk to some extent, as this will prevent the occurrence of cracks in which insects inevitably settle, and already existing microorganisms will be eliminated, which could subsequently harm the fruit culture.
Thanks to this treatment with lime or chalk, the trunks of fruit trees will be better protected from the effects of low temperatures. In addition, the sun's rays can burn the tree to some extent, and whitewashing the trunk will help to avoid this problem.
In a specialized gardening store, you can quite inexpensively purchase a ready-made so-called whitewash solution. If this is not possible, then you can prepare the solution yourself. For this, one and a half kilograms of clay are mixed in a bucket, as well as lime, in the amount of two kilograms.
If a small pear seedling is whitewashed, then two kilograms of lime is recommended. If you are whitening a seedling, cover it completely with the solution. If the tree is already large enough, then you should cover it with this mixture directly from the base of the trunk to the lower branches.
To make the soil under the pear more winter-resistant, it is recommended to mulch it, so to speak. To this end, it is important to use ordinary sawdust or humus. Such an event, of course, will help to protect and protect the trunk of the fruit tree from possible hypothermia, and will also give a fairly reliable protection to the root system.
As you know, rodents love to feast on the roots and bark of plants. Therefore, you should well wrap the trunk with a special mesh, and it is also important to attach any covering material, for example, you can use the so-called spruce branches, which will not allow various pests to damage the bark.
Top dressing of pears in autumn
It is important to exclude nitrogen fertilizers from the so-called late autumn feeding of the pear tree. They can be applied only in September, preferably at the beginning of the month. The best fertilizer is mineral fertilizing. It can be successfully purchased at a gardening store.
As for young trees, it is recommended to feed them with so-called wood ash. It is carefully brought to a depth of ten centimeters under the previously dug earth. So that the fruit tree is not afraid of severe winter cold weather, it is recommended to fertilize the soil with potassium, phosphate, and you can also use the so-called superphosphate, they are brought into the dug moat around the trunk, while counting on one tablespoon of fertilizing per square meter of land.
The fruit tree is a rather delicate crop that requires a rather attentive attitude to itself, as well as special care, which was described above. Accordingly, observing all the above recommendations, you can safely count on getting ripe and aromatic pears in large quantities next year.
Do not forget to form the crown of the tree, avoiding the so-called thickening of the branches, since this approach will allow you to remove a fairly good harvest of pears from the fruit tree. Remove excess branches, shorten annual shoots by 1/3. New shoots should continue the pyramidal shape of the crown, without spreading to the sides. Pruning in the fall is best done from mid-August to mid-September. Adherence to proper agricultural practices will help to grow a strong and fruitful tree.
Preparing a pear for winter consists of 6 important stages:
Before you start preparing the pear for winter, carefully inspect the tree, remove leaves, plants and plant debris in the near-trunk zone and on the crown of the tree.
Remember that both in the foliage and in the fruits, diseases and pests can hide for the winter, which immediately attack your plant with the beginning of the growing season. Therefore, both leaves and fruits must be removed at the end of autumn.
When the near-trunk circle is clean, you need to carry out a series of water-charging irrigations.
Remember that the water supply in the soil will prevent its sharp freezing and the roots will not be frozen if frost suddenly hits the soil not covered with snow.
Shelter of a young pear for the winter
For additional protection of newly planted seedlings, it is better to wrap them up with a white non-woven covering material, but not tightly, and so that there are air layers between the skeins, then the effect of such insulation will be as good as possible.
The newly planted seedlings must be protected from rodents even if they are covered with non-woven covering material, in the form of poison and a protective plastic mesh.
As with most fruit trees, preparing a pear for winter begins with harvesting. All dried and rotten fruits still remaining on the branches are removed, the carrion is collected and carried away from the site. They rake and burn or put fallen leaves in the compost.
To restore the pear, you need to remove the damaged bark and part of the wood.
The furrowing of the bark along the entire circumference of the trunk also contributes to the acceleration of overgrowing of large frost holes. Furrowing the bark (cutting it along the axis of the trunk) is done to rid the internal tissues of the pressure of the hardened bark oppressing them. Furrowing is carried out in May, after the first spring pressure of juice. To do this, sharp garden knives make a limiter so as not to make too deep cuts. On the circumference of the trunk, 3-4 furrows are made from top to bottom from the first bitch to the soil surface. Each furrow line is made intermittent - 30-40 cm each.
To prevent the appearance of frost cracks, it is necessary to whitewash trees with lime and other similar materials in late autumn or early spring.
It should be said that there may be several reasons why the tree froze. Moreover, freezing occurs not only in winter, but also in early spring, when the pear wakes up from sleep, buds and first leaves appear on the tree.
It was during this period that night frosts pose a great danger, which can destroy the tree. It is not uncommon for pears to freeze during cold and snowless winters.
In this case, the gardener needs to timely identify the existing problems, and carry out the grafting with a bridge, and all existing damage should be covered with garden varnish or natural oil paint.
Few novice gardeners know that non-observance of the technology for preparing fruit crops for wintering negatively affects the fruiting of plants. Today we will share tips on how to insulate a pear for the winter in order to improve the harvest of the next growing season.
In early September, potassium sulfate and superphosphate are added to the soil. It is better to save nitrogen-containing preparations until spring. Around the middle of autumn, water-charging watering of fruit trees is carried out. However, if autumn turned out to be rich in precipitation, you can refuse watering or reduce the amount of water several times. The soil should be saturated to 1 m. After the water is absorbed, the soil in the near-trunk circle is mulched with peat, sawdust, straw, coniferous branches or dry fallen leaves. Keep the foliage free of harmful insects. A layer of mulch protects the pear from cooling during an unexpected thaw and a sharp further cold snap.
One of the stages of preparing a pear for winter is sanitary pruning of the crown. Every autumn, the branches of fruit trees must be cut off, removing old, dried, injured and damaged by diseases and insects.
If you correctly follow all the technological steps to prepare strawberries for the winter period, then in the spring the plants will thank their owner with a quick set of green mass, abundant flowering and fruiting.
The timing of preparation strongly depends on the region in which a particular plant grows. The fact is that the bushes should be ready for the first night frosts. And since in different regions this time comes at different times, then it is incorrect to talk about uniform terms of preparation for winter.
It should be borne in mind that remontant varieties are most susceptible to low temperatures and soil freezing. For this reason, they especially need careful care in the autumn and appropriate preparation for wintering. If this is not done, then this will result in at least a low yield, and in the worst case, the death of the plantation.
It should be borne in mind that planting strawberry bushes in the autumn is a fairly common and well-known action in agricultural technology. This is due to the fact that in the fall the soil is warmed up after the summer. And the plant is planted in warmth. But in the spring, the soil is not warmed up well enough, as a result of which various unforeseen negative circumstances may arise. And despite the fact that this manipulation is still most often resorted to in the southern regions, it can also be performed in middle latitudes. Only the dates can be moved to the end of August, mid-September.
With all this, remember that even despite high-quality and rich soil, planting should be done at least once every three years.
Before deciding to cover the strawberries for the winter, you need to make a footnote to the variety. There are zoned varieties adapted to a specific region and climatic characteristics. In this case, there is no need to create a shelter.
The landing time is also important. If the strawberries were planted at the end of summer, in the first half of September, then they are sufficiently rooted to effectively survive the winter.
If the landing was carried out at a later date, then she needs to create a shelter. This is done from a special agrofibre or spunbond. Not only when there will be a constant decrease to -5 ° C for 3-5 days. In this case, the soil should begin to freeze. Otherwise, if you skip this period and wait too long, the root system may be damaged.
On the other hand, if you wrap up the bushes earlier, then the root system can simply vanish.
According to experienced gardeners, it is important to observe the law of subordination when pruning a pear tree. This means that the thickness and length of the branches should decrease from bottom to top. Compliance with this pruning scheme helps to grow the correct crown:
Some gardeners neglect to whitewash pear trunks before winter. The bright rays of the sun can damage the bark when removing shelter in early spring.